43% of all new HIV infections are diagnosed in women. It is important to know the HIV symptoms that are more common amongst women than men. You can’t tell from looking at someone whether or not they’ve got HIV. The only way of knowing for sure, is by taking a test.
What are the symptoms of HIV in women?
In general, the symptoms of HIV in women aren’t all that different to those a man would experience:
- Early stages of HIV: A short “flu-like” illness that occurs about 2 weeks after infection.
- Mid-stage HIV: A latency period of up to ten years where few (if any) symptoms are experienced. Swollen or painful glands are likely to be the main indication of an HIV infection during this time.
- Advanced HIV: Constitutional symptoms such as fatigue, weight-loss and dementia can signify a HIV infection is advancing into its later stages.
However, there are some vag!nal HIV symptoms that occur in women only:
- Vag!nal yeast infections.
- Abnormal Pap smears.
- Pelvic inflammatory disease.
- Unusual menstrual cycles.
There are also some HIV symptoms that are more common in women than men, such as psychological symptoms.
Women who are HIV-positive are more likely to have frequent and persistent yeast infections, and these infections are likely to be resistant to standard over-the-counter medications.
These infections occur because of an organism imbalance and a weakened immune system.
Symptoms of a vag!nal yeast infection:
- Burning and itching in the vag!nal/ vμlva area.
- Soreness of the vag!na.
- Pain during intercourse and/or urination.
- Whitish, odourless vag!nal discharge. Discharge is not always present.
RECOMMENDED READING: 5 Types Of Vag!nal Secretions And What They Signify
Yeast infections may appear and disappear in conjunction with hormonal variations associated with a woman’s menstrual cycle.
Abnormal PAP Smears
A Pap smear test is a screening test that’s used to detect potentially pre-cancerous and cancerous material found within the cervical canal. A common precursor to cervical cancer in women is abnormal cell growth brought on by HPV (human papillomavirus).
HIV positive women are at an increased risk of contracting HPV infection and disease and so are more likely to have abnormal Pap smear results. The HIV virus can attack cervical cells and eventually may lead to cancer if not caught in time. This is why newly infected HIV-positive women are encouraged to take 6-monthly smear tests (which then decreases to annual ones if no abnormality is found).
If your Pap smears indicate abnormal changes or dysplasia it could be an indication of HIV infection.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of a woman’s pelvic organs (i.e. uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries) and it can be one of the first symptoms of HIV in women.
PID is caused by bacteria that start in a woman’s vag!na or cervix (usually from gonorrhoea or chlamydia) and move up into her fallopian tubes, ovaries and uterus, causing infection. After being infected, it can take anywhere from a few days to a few months to develop PID.
Symptoms of PID include:
- Lower abdominal pain
- Abnormal vag!nal discharge
- Pain in the upper right abdomen
- Painful intεrcoursε
- Irregular menstrual bleeding
These may be minor or severe, or may not appear at all.
Untreated PID can lead to internal scarring and infertility, ectopic pregnancies, pelvic abscesses, chronic pelvic pain and other serious complications
As HIV progresses, changes in your immune system can affect the way your body makes and maintains levels of different hormones including testosterone, oestrogen and progesterone. Changes in the amount of oestrogen and progesterone can interfere with menstrual cycles.
HIV positive women may experience:
- More (or less) frequent periods
- Periods that last for longer than usual
- Missed periods
- Heavier or lighter periods
- No period for 90 days or more (amenorrhea)
- Spotting (bleeding) between periods
RECOMMENDED READING: 5 Causes of Vag!nal Bleeding Between Menstrual Periods
Menstrual irregularities are less common in people with a high CD4 cell count and low viral load (aka those who are already taking anti-HIV medication) so the presence of these symptoms could hint at undiagnosed HIV in women.
Gεnital Ulcers, Warts or Herpes
Gεnital ulcers can be a symptom of HIV in women. If you find ulcers, you should see a doctor immediately.
Herpes is also more common in women with HIV (particularly those with a low CD4 cell count) so frequent and persistent herpes infections could be an indication of HIV.
Symptoms of herpes:
- Painful blisters or open sores around the gεnital area.
- Tingling or burning in legs, buttocks and gεnitals prior to sores appearing.
While some psychological symptoms of HIV may occur in men, they are both more common and more severe amongst HIV positive women.
Common psychological symptoms of HIV in women are:
- Excessive forgetfulness
- Sεxual dysfunction
Because of the viral cause of these symptoms, they may be harder to treat than usual.
The Department of Health advises that women should not douche after sεx. It provides no protection against transmission of HIV. In addition, douching can alter the natural bacterial balance of yeast in the vag!na, increasing the risk of HIV and STDs, or making an already existing infection worse.
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